When the Muslims are confronted with an enemy, whether it is man or a wild animal, and in such a situation all the Muslims or even a part of them cannot get together and offer their salaah with jama'at, and they do not even get the opportunity of getting off the animals on which they are riding - then all of them should offer their salaah individually while sitting on their animals. In this case, even facing the qiblah is not a prerequisite. However, if two people are seated on one animal, they can offer their salaah with jama'at.
If they cannot even do this, they will be regarded as excused (ma'zur). They should not offer their salaah now. Once they are at ease and have peace of mind, they should make qada of their missed salaah. If it is possible for only a few of them to offer salaah with jama'at, in such a case they should not leave out the jama'at. In this case, salaah should be offered in the following way: all the Muslims should be divided into two groups. One group will remain fighting the enemy while the second group will commence it's salaah with the imam. If it is a three or four rakaat salaah, such as zuhr, asr, maghrib, esha, and these people are not musafirs, then once the imam completes two rakaats and stands up for the third rakaat, this first group should go away. If these people are musafirs, or it is a two rakaat salaah such as fajr, jumu'ah, eid, or the zuhr, asr and esha of a musafir; then this first group should go away after the first rakaat. The second group should come and join the imam for the balance of the salaah. The imam should wait for the arrival of this second group. Once the imam completes the balance of the salaah, he should make salaam and this second group should go to fight the enemy without making salaam. The first group should then return and complete it's salaah without making qira'at. They should then make salaam. This is because this first group is regarded as a laahiq. This group should then go to fight the enemy. The second group should return and complete its salaah with qira'at and then make salaam. This is so because this group is regarded as a masbuq.
1. When these groups go to confront the enemy in their state of salaah or return to complete their salaah, then this going and coming has to be done on foot. If this is done by mounting an animal, their salaah will become invalid. This is because it is regarded as amal-e-katheer, i.e. excessive movement (which invalidates salaah).
2. The second group's offering the balance of the salaah with the imam, the first group's returning and completing it's salaah, and thereafter the second group's returning and completing it's salaah - all this is mustahab and preferable. It is also permissible for the first group to offer it's salaah and go away. Thereafter, the second group comes and offers the remainder of the salaah with the imam and thereafter completes it's salaah on it's own. Only after completing it's salaah, it will go towards the enemy. When this second group reaches there, the first group will complete it's salaah over there and does not have to return to the place where it had offered the first half of it's salaah.
3. This method of offering salaah will only apply if all the people wish to offer their salaah behind one imam, e.g. a person is very pious and all the people wish to offer their salaah behind him. If this is not the case, it is preferable for one group to offer it's entire salaah behind one imam and thereafter to go to confront the enemy. Thereafter, the second group will appoint it's own imam and offer the entire salaah behind him.
4. If there is the fear that the enemy is very close and it will reach here very soon, and in thinking so they offered their salaah as mentioned in the beginning. Later they realized that this fear of theirs was unfounded. In such a case the salaah of the imam will be valid. The muqtadis will have to repeat their salaah. This is because this type of salaah has been stipulated at the time of extreme necessity. So much so that contrary to sound reasoning, even amal-e-katheer has been permitted. Without any extreme necessity, this sort of amal-e-katheer makes the salaah invalid.
5. If the fighting is a forbidden type of fighting, then to offer the salaah in this method is not permissible, e.g. a few renegades rise up against the ruler of the Islamic state or someone fights with another person for a forbidden worldly reason. For such people this amal-e-katheer will not be permitted.
6. If they commenced their salaah without facing the qiblah, and in the meanwhile the enemy flees, they should immediately turn towards the qiblah. If not, the salaah will not be valid.
7. If they commenced their salaah while facing the qiblah, and in this state the enemy arrives, it will be permissible to immediately turn towards the enemy. In this case, facing the qiblah will no longer be a prerequisite.
8. If a person is swimming in the sea and the time of salaah is about to expire, then if it is possible, he should stop moving his hands and legs for a little while and offer his salaah with ishaarah.