Rules Related to the Times of Salaah
1. In summer, one should not hasten towards reading zuhr salaah. It is mustahab to offer zuhr salaah after the intense heat rays elapse. In winter, it is preferable to offer zuhr salaah at the beginning of zuhr time.
2. Asr salaah should be delayed till such a time that if after the entry of asr time one wishes to offer any nafl salaah, he can do so, because it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaah after having offered asr salaah irrespective of whether it is in summer or in winter. However, one should not delay to such an extent that the sun turns yellow and its rays change in colour. It is mustahab to hasten towards offering maghrib salaah and to offer it immediately after sunset.
3. The person who is in the habit of waking up for tahajjud salaah in the latter part of the night and has full confidence of definitely waking up; then it is better for him to offer his witr salaah after having offered his tahajjud salaah. But if he is not confident of waking up and fears that he will remain asleep; then he should offer his witr salaah after his esha salaah before going to sleep.
4. It is preferable to delay the fajr, zuhr and maghrib salaahs on a cloudy day, while it is mustahab to offer asr salaah a bit early.
5. No salaah is valid at the times of sunrise, mid-day and sunset. However, if asr salaah has not been offered as yet, then it could be offered even at the time of sunset. In these three times, even sajdah-e-tilaawat is makruh and not permissible.
6. It is makruh to offer any nafl salaah after offering fajr salaah until sunrise. However, the offering of any qada salaah and sajdah-e-tilaawat before the sun rises is permissible. But once the sun rises, then as long as some light does not appear, even qada salaah will not be permissible. Similarly, it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaah after the asr salaah. However, qada salaah and sajdah-e-tilaawat is permissible. But once the rays of the sun become weak or faint, then even this is not permissible.
7. At fajr time, a person only offered his fard salaah out of fear that the sun will rise very soon. So as long as the sun does not rise considerably and does not get quite bright, the sunnah salaah should not be offered. Once some light appears, sunnah salaah and any other salaah may be offered.
8. Once dawn breaks and fajr time enters, then apart from the two rakaats sunnah and two rakaats fard of fajr salaah, it is makruh to offer any other nafl salaah. However, it is permissible to offer any qada salaah and to make sajdah-e-tilaawat.
9. If the sun rises while one is offering ones fajr salaah then this salaah will not be valid. When the sun becomes a bit bright, one should make qada. But if the sun sets while one is offering asr salaah, then this salaah will be valid and there will be no need to make qada of it.
10. It is makruh to sleep before offering esha salaah. One should offer ones salaah and then sleep. However, if due to some sickness or travelling, one is very tired and tells someone to wake him up at the time of salaah and that person promises to wake him up; then in this case it will be permissible to sleep.
11. It is mustahab for men to offer fajr salaah at a time when the light spreads considerably and there is so much of time left that in the salaah itself about forty to fifty verses could be read properly; and after offering the salaah, if for some reason one has to repeat the salaah, then in the same way he could read forty to fifty verses again. It is mustahab for women to offer fajr salaah throughout the year when it is dark. And it is mustahab for men and women who are performing hajj to offer fajr salaah when it is dark when they are in Muzdalifah.
12. The time for jumu'ah salaah is the same as the time for zuhr salaah. The only difference is that it is mustahab to delay zuhr salaah in summer irrespective of whether it is hot or not. And it is mustahab to offer zuhr salaah early in winter, while it is sunnah to offer jumu'ah salaah early throughout the year. This is the opinion of all the ulama.
13. The time for the eid salaahs commences when the sun rises considerably and remains until just before mid-day. The sun rising considerably means that the yellowness of the sun disappears and its light is so bright that one cannot look at it. In establishing this, the jurists have said that it must rise to the extent of one spear. It is mustahab to offer the eid salaahs early. However, the salaah of Eid ul-Fitr should be delayed slightly after the time commences.
14. When the imam gets up from his place to perform the khutbah of jumu'ah, the eid salaahs or for hajj, etc. then it is makruh to offer any salaah in these times. It is also makruh to offer any salaah at the time of the khutbah of nikah or at the time of the completion of the Quran.
15. It is also makruh to offer any salaah when the iqaamah for a fard salaah is being called out. However, if one has not offered the sunnah of fajr salaah and one is sure or convinced that one will get one rakaat with the congregation, then it will not be makruh to offer the sunnah of fajr salaah. And the one who has already commenced with any sunnah-e-mu'akkadah, should complete it first.
16. It is makruh to offer any nafl salaah prior to the salaahs of eid irrespective of whether one offers it at home or at the eid-gah. As for offering it after the eid salaahs, it will only be makruh to offer it at the eid-gah.