THE METHOD OF OFFERING FARDH SALAAH
1. After making the intention for salaah, say Allahu Akbar. While saying Allahu Akbar, raise both the hands upto the shoulders. However, one should not take out the hands out of the headgear or scarf (or burqah). Thereafter, the hands should be clasped onto the chest with the palm of the right hand placed on the back of the left hand. Thereafter, dua thana should be read. After reading A'udhu billah and Bismillah, she should recite Surah Faatihah and after Wa lad daalleen, she should say aameen. After reading Bismillah, she should recite some other Surah.
She should then say Allahu Akbar and go into ruku and read:
Translation: Glory to my Lord, the most exalted.
This should be read three, five or seven times. In ruku, the fingers of both hands should be together and placed on the knees. The arms should be well joined to the sides and the ankles of both the feet should be together. She should then read:
Translation: Allah has heard the one who has praised Him.
While saying this, she should raise her head.
Once she stands upright, she must say Allahu Akbar and go down for sajdah. First, the knees should touch the ground, thereafter the hands should be placed in line with her ears and the fingers should be close together. Then place the head in-between both the hands. In sajdah, both the forehead and the nose should touch the ground. The fingers and toes should face the qiblah. But the feet should not be upright. Instead, they should be taken out towards the right hand side. She should draw herself closely together and press herself firmly while in sajdah. The stomach should be joined to both the thighs, the arms to the sides, and both arms should be placed on to the ground. In sajdah, she should read the following dua at least three times:
Translation: Glory to my Lord, the Highest.
She should then say Allahu Akbar and sit upright. She should say Allahu Akbar again and go down for sajdah for a second time, and read:
at least three times. She should then say Allahu Akbar and stand up. When standing up, she should not place her hands on the ground for support.
She should then recite Bismillah, Surah Faatihah and another Surah and thereafter complete her second rakaat in the same way.
On completing the second sajdah, she should sit on her left buttock and take out both her feet towards the right side. She should place both her hands on her thighs and keep her fingers joined together. She should then recite the following dua:
On reaching the kalimah, she should make a circle with the thumb and middle finger of the right hand. When she says La ilaha, she should raise her forefinger, and on saying Illallahu she should drop it. However, the circle should be maintained till the end of the salaah.
If it is a four rakaat salaah, she should not read anything further. Instead, she should immediately say Allahu Akbar and stand up and offer two additional rakaats. In the latter two rakaats of the fard salaah, nothing should be recited after Surah Faatihah. When she sits down for the fourth rakaat, she must recite the following durood after reciting at-tahiyyaat:
Thereafter, she should recite the following dua:
or, the following dua:
Alternatively, she could read any other dua that is found in the Quran or Hadith. Thereafter, she should turn towards the right and say As salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah. She should then turn towards the left and say the same thing. At the time of making salaam she should make the intention of making salaam to the angels.
This is the method of offering salaah. If even one of the fard acts of salaah are missed out, the salaah will not be complete, irrespective of whether it was missed out intentionally or unintentionally. There are certain things which are wajib. If they are left out intentionally then the salaah will become worthless and it will have to be repeated. If a person does not repeat it, then although he will be absolved of his fard duty, he will still be committing a sin. But if he leaves out a wajib unintentionally, his salaah will become valid by making sajdah-e-sahw. There are certain things which are sunnah while others are mustahab.
2. The Fard Acts of Salaah
There are six acts which are fard in salaah:
1. To say Allahu Akbar at the time of making the intention.
2. To stand up.
3. To recite any verse or Surah from the Quran.
4. To make the ruku.
5. To make the two sajdahs.
6. To sit down at the end of salaah for as long as it takes one to recite the entire at-tahiyyaat.
3. The Wajib Acts of Salaah
The following things are wajib in salaah:
1. To recite Surah Faatihah.
2. To recite some other Surah with it.
3. To execute every fard act at its specific place.
4. To stand and recite Surah Faatihah and to recite some Surah with it.
5. To go into ruku.
6. To go into sajdah.
7. To sit down after two rakaats.
8. To recite at-tahiyyaat in both the sitting postures.
9. To recite dua-e-qunoot in witr salaah.
10. To complete the salaah by saying As salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah.
11. To perform all the acts with patience and without rushing.
4. Apart from the above acts, all the others are either sunnah or mustahab.
5. A person does not recite Surah Faatihah but reads some other verse or some other Surah, or he only recites Surah Faatihah and does not read any other verse or Surah, or he does not sit down after the second rakaat but stands up for the third rakaat without sitting down and without reading at-tahiyyaat, or he sat down but did not read at-tahiyyaat - in all these cases, although he will be absolved of his fard duty, his salaah will be worthless. It is wajib on him to repeat his salaah. If he does not repeat his salaah, he will be committing a great sin. However, if he does all these things unintentionally, then by making sajdah-e-sahw, his salaah will become valid.
6. At the time of making salaam, the person did not make salaam. Instead he started to speak, or conversed with someone, or got up and went away somewhere, or did something else with which salaah breaks; then the same rule applies over here. That is, although he will be absolved of his fard duty, he will still have to repeat his salaah. If he does not do so, he will be sinful.
7. If a person recited a Surah before Surah Faatihah, even then he will have to repeat his salaah. If he did this unintentionally, he should make sajdah-e-sahw.
8. After Surah Faatihah, at least three verses should be recited. If only one or two verses are recited and they are such that they equal three verses in length, salaah will still be valid.
9. After standing up from ruku, a person did not recite:
or in ruku he did not recite:
or in sajdah he did not recite:
or in the last sitting position he did not recite durood after at-tahiyyaat. Then in all the above cases his salaah will be valid, but it will be contrary to the sunnah. Similarly, if after the durood, he did not read any dua, but made salaam immediately after reciting the durood, then too his salaah will be valid but contrary to the sunnah.
10. It is sunnah to raise the hands at the time of commencing the salaah. If one does not raise his hands, it will still be proper but contrary to the sunnah.
11. In every rakaat, Bismillah should be read before Surah Faatihah. When the next Surah is read, Bismillah should be read again. This is the preferable method.
12. When making sajdah, if one does not place the forehead and nose on the ground, but places the forehead only, even then the salaah will be valid. But if one does not place the forehead, and places the nose only, the salaah will not be valid. However, if a person has a valid excuse, it will be permissible to place his nose only.
13. If a person did not stand upright in ruku, but merely lifted his head slightly and went straight into sajdah, he will have to repeat his salaah.
14. A person did not sit properly in-between the two sajdahs, he merely lifted his head slightly and went down for the second sajdah. If he does this, he has in fact made only one sajdah and did not complete the two sajdahs. His salaah is not valid. But if he lifted his head in such a way that he was near the sitting position, he will be absolved of his duty but it will be worthless. He should therefore repeat his salaah. If he does not do so, he will be sinful.
15. If a person makes sajdah on something made out of straw or cotton wool, he should press his head down firmly and make sajdah. He should press it down in such a way that he cannot press any further. If he does not press it down firmly but merely places his head lightly, his sajdah will not be considered.
16. If a person adds another Surah after Surah Faatihah in the latter two rakaats of a four rakaat fard salaah, then no harm will come to the salaah. His salaah will be perfectly correct.
17. If a person does not read Surah Faatihah in the latter two rakaats but merely reads Sub'haanallah three times, even then his salaah will be proper. However, it is preferable to recite Surah Faatihah. And if he reads nothing at all and merely remains silent, even then there is no harm and the salaah will be proper.
18. It is wajib to read a Surah after Surah Faatihah in the first two rakaats. If a person only recites Surah Faatihah in the first two rakaats or does not even read Surah Faatihah but merely reads Sub'haanallah; then in the latter two rakaats he should read a Surah after Surah Faatihah. If he did this intentionally he will have to repeat his salaah. And if he did this unintentionally, he will have to make sajdah-e-sahw.
19. In her salaah, a woman must recite Surah Faatihah, another Surah, and all the other duas softly and silently. But she should recite them in such a way that her voice reaches her own ears. If she cannot hear her own voice, her salaah will not be valid.
20. One should not set aside or specify a particular Surah for a particular salaah. Instead, one should read whatever one wishes. To set aside a particular surah is makruh.
21. In the second rakaat, one should not recite a Surah that is longer than the one that one recited in the first rakaat.
22. Women should offer their salaah individually and not in congregation. They should not go to the musjid to offer their salaah in congregation with the men. If a woman offers her salaah in congregation with her husband or any other mahram, she should find out the relevant rules in this regard. This occurs very seldom. We have therefore not gone into details in this regard. However, it should be noted that if such an occasion arises, the woman should not stand in line with the man. She should stand behind him. If not, her salaah and even his salaah will not be valid.
23. If one's wudu breaks while offering salaah, one should make wudu and repeat the salaah.
24. It is mustahab to fix the eyes on the spot of sajdah when one is standing. In ruku the eyes should be fixed on the feet, in sajdah on the nose, and when making salaam on the shoulders. If one yawns, one should close ones mouth tightly. If it does not stop in any other way, it should be stopped with the back of the hand. If one feels an irritation in the throat, then as far as possible, one should try to stop the cough or subdue it.